The Panel in Tuna-Dolphin GATT (I and II) did not clarify this issue, but found in this case that safe identification of dolphins was a technical regulation because of the second sentence. Therefore, it can be assumed that the labelling of NPRP-PPM products is now within the scope of technical rules.  A standard is a document approved by an accredited body that sets out guidelines or characteristics that are not mandatory. It may contain terminology, symbols, packaging or labelling requirements and may apply to a product, process or manufacturing process. Standards differ from technical regulations in that they are not binding. Although they are voluntary, producers often have no choice but to respect them for commercial practice.  A technical regulation is a document that sets mandatory conditions. Measures may include terminology, symbols, packaging or labelling requirements and may apply to a product, process or manufacturing process. The TBT agreement was negotiated as part of the Uruguay Round multilateral trade negotiations, which were concluded in April 1994. It has expanded to a stricter code of standards, adopted in a previous round of trade negotiations.
All WTO members (offsite link) are parties to the TBT agreement, which came into force on 1 January 1995 and has no expiry date. 2.10.1 immediately inform the other members, through the secretariat, of the specific technical regulations and the products covered, briefly specifying the purpose and justification of the technical regulation, including the nature of the urgent problems; 11.8 When advising and providing technical assistance to other members covered in paragraphs 1 to 7, members prioritize the needs of the least developed countries. 15.1 Reservations cannot be registered with respect to the provisions of this agreement without the consent of the other members. 13.2 The committee may set up working groups or other bodies that perform the functions assigned to you by the committee in accordance with the relevant provisions of this agreement. 14.2 At the request of a party to the dispute or on its own initiative, a group may form a group of technical experts to provide assistance on technical matters requiring in-depth expert review. 2.9.3, at the request of other members, to provide information or copies of the proposed technical regulation and, where possible, to identify parties that deviate essentially from relevant international standards; 8.1 Members take appropriate steps to ensure that non-governmental organizations conducting compliance assessment procedures in their territory comply with Section 5 and 6, with the exception of the requirement to notify proposed compliance assessment procedures. In addition, members do not take any action that directly or indirectly encourages these organizations to act or encourage them in a manner inconsistent with Articles 5 and 6. 12.2 Members pay particular attention to the provisions of this agreement on the rights and obligations of members of developing countries and take into account the specific development, financing and trade needs of members of developing countries when implementing this agreement, both at the national level and in the implementation of these institutional agreements.